CMP14 (Comprehensive Metabolic Panel)
CMP 14 or Chem 14 consists of sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, creatinine, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, glucose, nitrogen, albumin, ALT/GPT, AST/ GOT, total bilirubin, total protein. The CMP is an expanded version of the basic metabolic panel (BMP), which does not include liver tests. A CMP (or BMP) can be ordered as part of a routine physical examination, or may be used to monitor a patient with a chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus or hypertension.
CBC (Complete Blood Count)
A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to evaluate your overall health and
detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia.
A complete blood count test measures several components and features of your blood, including:
Red blood cells, which carry oxygen
White blood cells, which fight infection
Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells
Hematocrit, the proportion of red blood cells to the fluid component, or plasma, in your blood
Platelets, which help with blood clotting
Abnormal increases or decreases in cell counts as revealed in a complete blood count may indicate that you have an underlying medical condition that calls for further evaluation.
TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)
test is used to check for thyroid gland problems. TSH is produced when the hypothalamus releases a substance called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH then triggers the pituitary gland to release TSH.
TSH causes the thyroid gland to make two hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). T3 and T4 help control your body's metabolism.
Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are needed for normal growth of the brain, especially during the first 3 years of life. A baby whose thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone (congenital hypothyroidism) may, in severe cases, be mentally retarded. Older children also need thyroid hormones to grow and develop normally.
This test may be done at the same time as tests to measure T3 and T4.
A lipid panel is a blood test that measures lipids-fats and fatty substances used as a source of energy by your body. Lipids include cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
- This panel measures.
- Total cholesterol level.
- Triglyceride level.
- HDL cholesterol level. This is the "good" cholesterol.
- LDL cholesterol level. This is the "bad" cholesterol.
Other measurements that may be done for alipid panel include:
- Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol level.
- The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL.
- The ratio of LDL to HDL.
Lipids are found in your blood and are stored in tissues. They are an important part of cells, and they help keep your body working normally. Lipid disorders, such as high cholesterol, may lead to life-threatening illnesses, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart attack, or stroke.
Your doctor may order a lipid panel as part of a regular health examination. Your doctor may use the results of this test to prevent, check on, or diagnose a medical condition.
You usually need to avoid eating for 10 to 12 hours before you have this blood test. You may drink water and take medicines your doctor prescribed during this time. But avoid drinking liquids other than water.
If your doctor finds a lipid disorder, treatment may be started to help lower your blood lipid levels. Your treatment could include medicines, diet changes, weight loss, and exercise.
This test is done to test how much B12 is in your blood.
This test is most often done when other blood test tests suggest a condition called megaloblastic anemia. Pernicious anemia is a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach makes less of the substance the body needs to properly absorb vitamin B12.
Your doctor may also order a Vitamin B12 test if you have certain nervous system symptoms. Low levels of B12 can cause numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, weak
A folic acid test measures the amount of folic acid in the blood. Folic acid is one of many B vitamins. The body needs folic acid to make red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), platelets, and for normal growth. Folic acid also is important for the normal development of a baby (fetus).
Folic acid can be measured in the liquid portion of blood (plasma). This reflects a person's recent intake of folic acid in the diet. Folic acid is found in foods such asliver; citrus fruits; dark green, leafy vegetables (spinach); whole grains; cereals with added B vitamins; beans; milk; kidney; and yeast.
Folic acid can also be measured as the amount in the red blood cells. This test may be a better way than the plasma test to measure the amount of folic acid stored in the body. The amount of folic acid in red blood cells measures the level when the cell was made, as much as 2 months earlier. This level is not usually affected by the amount of folic acid in your diet each day. It is a more accurate way to measure the body's level of folic acid
Vitamin D is vital for strong bones. It also has important, emerging roles in immune function and cancer prevention. Deficiencies at any stage of life can have devastating consequences. Similarly, vitamin D toxicity resulting from overmedication can cause serious hypercalcemia. Vitamin D consists of 2 bioequivalent forms:
Vitamin D2: obtained from vegetable sources (dietary sources, supplements); Vitamin D3: derived from both endogenous (synthesized from cholesterol through sun exposure) and exogenous (animal diet) sources.
Until recently, vitamin D replacement in the United States consisted exclusively of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D2. During the last 1 to 2 years an increasing proportion of 25- hydroxy-vitamin D3 replacement is being used, in particular in high dose prescription formulations.
Vitamin D deficiency is more common than previously believed, especially among adolescents, women, and the elderly. For example, studies have shown that more than 50% of the institutionalized elderly and an equal proportion of women of any age undergoing treatment for osteoporosis have inadequate levels of vitamin D.1 While treatment with vitamin supplementation is easy and inexpensive, many affected individuals go undiagnosed and untreated.
The total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VitD) level (the sum of 25-OH-vitamin D2 and 25-OH-vitamin D3) is the appropriate indicator of vitamin D body stores. Although there is no universal consensus about a treatment cut point, studies suggest 25 to 35 ng/ mL as the minimal concentration of 25-OH-VitD needed to avoid the adverse effects of deficiency.2,3,4 By contrast, population reference ranges do not correspond with healthy ranges. In northern latitude locations in particular, one-third of the population may have vitamin D levels less than 25 ng/mL at the end of winter.
Prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood. For this test, a blood sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. The results are usually reported as nanograms of PSA per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood.
The blood level of PSA is often elevated in men with prostate cancer, and the PSA test was originally approved by the FDA in 1986 to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in men who had already been diagnosed with the disease. In 1994, the FDA approved the use of the PSA test in conjunction with a digital rectal exam (DRE) to test asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. Men who report prostate symptoms often undergo PSA testing (along with a DRE) to help doctors determine the nature of the problem.
In addition to prostate cancer, a number of benign (not cancerous) conditions can cause a man’s PSA level to rise. The most frequent benign prostate conditions that cause an elevation in PSA level are prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (enlargement of the prostate). There is no evidence that prostatitis or BPH leads to prostate cancer, but it is possible for a man to have one or both of these conditions and to develop prostate cancer as well.